What are some examples of tragedy of the commons? - Quora What are some examples of tragedy of the commons? - Quora

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We may well call it "the tragedy of the commons," using the word "tragedy" as the philosopher Whitehead used it 7: An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.

The first is a theoretical one. With carbon-14 dating margin of error in statistics estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance.

The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties" I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods.

David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds Why should there not be surrender by humanity for a Universal Common Good? With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance.

What are some 'tragedy of the commons' examples in the modern real world? - Quora

The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream - whose property extends to the middle of the stream - often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. This association which need not be invariable casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum.

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Hardin discussed this topic further in a book, Managing the Commons, co-written with John A. Therein is the tragedy.

As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears.

The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream--whose property extends to the middle of the stream, often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door.

However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. In nature the criterion is survival. When resources say land, mines, coal, natural gas, etc are privatised, the invariable results are corruption, cronyism and overuse of non-renewable resources.

The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason--Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?

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Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed.

The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. I believe it was Hegel who said, "Freedom is the recognition of necessity.

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But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of "like father, like son" implicit in our laws of legal inheritance. My thesis is that the "population problem," as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class. This one is from the world of biology.

People take better care of their own property than property they share with others. Non-governmental solution[ edit ] Sometimes the best governmental solution may be to do nothing.

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The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. Several countries have a variety of population control laws in place.

What Shall We Maximize?

To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Once we are aware that the status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience.

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Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of "fouling our own nest," so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free-enterprisers. When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind?

We should also join with Kingsley Davis 15 in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal.

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An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow "geometrically," or, as we would now say, exponentially.

It might be by lottery. Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility.

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When a person does not individually bear the full cost of using a resource, others bear part of the cost. Why not break walls of religions, unnaturally created for conflict amid humanity?

It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable.

We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control.