The Food Timeline: history notes--restaurants, chefs & foodservice The Food Timeline: history notes--restaurants, chefs & foodservice

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When ordering from a restaurant menu, the patron therefore made a highly individualistic statement, differentiating him-or herself and his or her bodily complaint from the other eaters and their conditions.

Others are defined by their position and function in the sequence Eight important intermediate dishes called broths. Eight pates or cold meat and fish dishes and sixteen raw salads, with oil, cream and butter.

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In a restaurant, the ostentations potlatch of baroque expenditure was replaced by the equally conspicuous and significant economy of rationalized calculation.

Before the emergence of the restaurant, a menu had always been a list of all those foods to be served during a particular meal as at a banquet today. There were, in all, garnished dishes or plates, not counting the various foodstuffs served as dessert. Restaurant menus, as we know them today, are a relatively new phenomenon.

The Roast centerpiece of the meal Second Entremets cooked vegetables, fruit Dessert cakes, pastries, etc. This colour consideration became universal in nineteenth-century cooking.

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This book contains far more information about the origin and history of the menu than can be paraphrased here.

But their number was far from fixed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. New York] p.

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Fifth and last course: The final service was our modern dessert, with fruits, compotes, jams, biscuits, macaroons, cheeses, petits fours and sweets as well as ices. Doubtless, not all the dishes which figured in the five obligatory courses which made up the gala banquets were perfectly executed, nor were they as variet as they should have been.

Spang [Harvard University Press: Here is how A. Food historians tell us they were a "byproduct" of the French Revolution.

Eight roast dishes and sixteen vegetable dishes cooked in meat stock. If you need more details please ask your librarian to help you find a copy.

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Nevertheless, there were many of them, if one may judge from the menu of the dinner offered by Mme. Examples of 12 course menus are rare, perhaps suggesting they are not "standard" at all.

Twenty-four different kinds of pastries--twenty-four jars of raw fruit--twenty-four dishes of sweetmeats--preserves, dried and in syrup and jams. We have seen that between the sixteenth century and the seventeenth, fewer course came to be served at aristocratic tables. The third service involved cold pates and entremets, either sweet or savory Restaurants had printed menus because they offered their customers a choice of unseen dishes Some are defined by aspect and mode of preparation Cambridge MA] p.

The second service comprised of roasts and salads, with the obligatory groses pieces decorating the ends of the table. At a large, formal dinner, the first service could contain anything up to a hundred dishes.

Grimod de La Reyniere describes such a meal in his Almanach des gourmands: Cookbooks recommended them and chefs in wealthy households composed them, but all the items on the menu were brought to the table in the course of the meal. In general, these remained untouched, for they were more to please the eye than the appetite and could be anything from a vast mille-feuille to a Nerac terrine, a heap of crayfish or a blue carp.

Our research confirms "classic" meals generally offer 4 to 8 courses.


The number of courses, and the number of dishes served at each course, are period and meal dependant. Sixteen entrees of fine meats.

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Johnson [University of California Press: There might also be a visit from some savoury flying saucer or assiette volante, i. In general, a colour, either white or brown, predominated

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